A minimalist development workflow using ES6 modules and Snowpack

Update: Snowpack is no longer actively maintained. To setup the same minimalist workflow today, I recommend using esinstall. For more details, see: A minimalist development workflow using ES modules and esinstall.

The approach described below is compatible with Snowpack v1 and v2, but not Snowpack v3.

Suppose you want to build a small interactive web-app and you need it to be simple and low-maintenance. Maybe it’s an animation experiment or a web-audio demo—something that requires a handful of libraries and some custom JavaScript.

The modern JavaScript ecosystem won’t do you any favors. Most libraries assume you’re using some sort of bundler, which adds enough complexity that the common advice is to pull in something like Parcel or Create React App to set everything up. This approach feels so straightforward that it’s easy to forget that you’re building on a rickety tower of dependencies.* 😱

Fortunately, we can shed all this complexity by skipping the bundler and using ES6 modules (browser support is good now)! I tried this for a project recently and I really liked how it turned out. Here’s the setup I used.

HTML, CSS, and JavaScript

It starts with a basic HTML file, which pulls in style.css for styles and main.js as our JavaScript entrypoint:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
  <meta charset="UTF-8">
  <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
  <title>My Project</title>
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css">
  <h1>Hello World</h1>
  <script type="module" src="main.js"></script>

By declaring type="module" on our script tag, we’re safe to use import and export statements in main.js without needing a bundler. 💪

Pulling in dependencies

To pull in dependencies, we’ll create a basic package.json and list them under dependencies like normal. Here’s an example:

  "name": "my-project",
  "dependencies": {
    "full-page-canvas": "0.1.0",
    "confetti-js": "0.0.18"

Running npm install will download these packages to a node_modules folder, but we can’t actually import them into our code, for a few reasons:

  1. Every package is organized differently. ES6 imports require us to point to a specific JavaScript file, but which one? Each package with an ES6 module entrypoint saves it wherever they want, and names it whatever they want. There’s no standard.
  2. Not all packages support ES6 imports. For years we’ve been building packages that export to browser globals, CommonJS, or other module formats. If the library you want to use doesn’t have an ES6 module entrypoint, then you’re toast.

This is where Snowpack comes in. You can think of Snowpack as a Webpack alternative that uses ES6 modules to simplify and speed up your development workflow. When we run a basic Snowpack build, we produce a single ES6-module-friendly file for each of our dependencies (even the ones that don’t have built-in ES6 module support)!

To use Snowpack, we’ll add a snowpack section to our package.json, and list out the packages that we want to import into our code.

  "name": "my-project",
  "scripts": {
    "build": "npx [email protected]"
  "dependencies": {
    "full-page-canvas": "0.1.0",
    "confetti-js": "0.0.18"
  "snowpack": {
    "install": [

Typically we would add snowpack as a devDependency, but I chose to reference it in a custom “build” command instead. Now when we run npm run build, it uses npx to download snowpack on the fly, which builds a web_modules folder containing a ready-to-import file for each of my dependencies. This is a one-time build, after which I can check web_modules into git.

Side-note: Why check web_modules into git? Well, we usually avoid checking in node_modules because it contains all sorts of stuff that your production app won’t use (like docs, tests, and binaries for your devDependencies). But web_modules only contains the actual code we’ll be using in production. It’s similar to Bower in that way (and Bower encouraged us to check in bower_components).

Now, we can go into our main.js file, import the dependencies, and write some modern JavaScript:

import canvas from "/web_modules/full-page-canvas.js";
import ConfettiJS from "/web_modules/confetti-js.js";

const canvasEl = canvas.mount();
const confetti = new ConfettiJS({ target: canvasEl });

To see the site, we’ll need a local server. We could install one as a devDependency, but I like using SimpleHTTPServer since it’s installed on every Mac computer by default. To start it, we run python -m SimpleHTTPServer in the folder containing our files:

The page we built, with a confetti animation
Browse to localhost:8000 and celebrate!

When it’s time to update our project dependencies, we just need to update the versions in package.json, reinstall with npm install, and then rebuild with Snowpack (npm run build).

Pros and Cons

There’s a few things I really like about this setup:

  • Super-simple local development. There’s no need to watch files, generate source maps, or trigger rebuilds. Just hit save and refresh your browser.
  • Using ES6 modules means you can organize your code as if you had a bundler.
  • A tiny package.lock file (which makes it easier to avoid upstream security issues).
  • Deploying is easy. Just use an FTP client, run an scp command, or deploy with a git push (if you’re hosting on a service like Netlify or Github Pages).

There’s also a few downsides:

  • No fancy styling tools like Sass or PostCSS (it’s not too bad though… plain CSS is pretty good these days).
  • Some frameworks that heavily rely on tooling might not work. For example, you’ll need a Babel integration if you want to use React with JSX.
  • No production-specific builds containing performance optimizations.

I should note that Snowpack DOES support all of these features, but you’d have to set it up more like a traditional bundler, which adds some complexity. So worst-case-scenario, you could begin with a minimalist Snowpack setup and add support for bundling later if you really need it. That’s not bad at all.

Overall I dig the simplicity of bundle-free development, and I’ll probably use it for more projects in the future. If you have other minimalist development workflows you love, I’d love to hear about them in the comments.

* At the time of this writing, Create React App downloads over 260MB of dependencies, while Parcel downloads a little over 100MB.